Financial management is one of the important aspects in finance. Nobody can ever think to start a business or a company without financial knowledge and management strategies. Finance links itself directly to several functional departments like marketing, production and personnel. Here we will list out some of the major scope of financial management notes which will help you in your decision making process.
Key Scope of Financial Management:
Major scope of financial management are divided in four categories. Lets learn and understand about the nature and scope of financial management through the below details notes.
1. Investment Decision:
Evaluating the risk involved, measuring the cost of fund and estimating expected benefits from a project comes under investment decision. It is one of the important scope of financial management. The two major components of investment decision are – Capital budgeting and liquidity.
Capital budgeting is commonly known as the investment appraisal. It deals with the allocation of capital and funds in such a manner that they will yield earnings in future. Capital budgeting determines the long term investment which includes replacement and renovation of old assets. It is all about maintaining an appropriate balance between fixed and current assets in order to maximize profitability and to maintain desired liquidity in the firm for its smooth functioning.
Decisions related to working capital is another crucial scope of financial management. Decisions involving around working capital and short term financing are known as working capital decision. It also manages the relationship between short term assets and its liabilities.
Short term assets include cash in hand, receivables, inventory, short-term securities, etc. Creditors, bills payable, outstanding expenses, bank overdraft, etc are a firm’s short term liabilities. Short term assets can be exchanged with cash within one calendar year. Similarly, the liabilities are to be settled within an accounting year.
3. Dividend Decision:
The Dividend Decision plays a crucial role in today’s corporate era. It determines the amount of taxation that stockholders pay. A good dividend policy helps to achieve the objective of wealth maximization. Distributing the entire profit in the form of dividends or distributing only a certain percentage of it is decided by dividend policy. It is known as deciding the optimum dividend payout ratio i.e. proportion of net profits to be paid out to shareholders.
Stability of cash dividends and stock sets the parameter which determines the number of investment opportunities. Expansion of an economic activity depends on effectiveness of dividend decisions and scope of financial management.
4. Financing Decision:
Financing Decisions focuses on the accountabilities and stockholders’ equity side of the firm’s balance sheet, for example decision to issue bonds is a kind of financing decision. The main aim of financing decision is to cover expenses and investments. The decision involves generating capitals by various methods, from different sources, in relative proportion and considering opportunity costs, with respect to time of flotation of securities, etc.
Scope of financial management is to meet the expenses of the firm, a suitable capital structure for the enterprise should be developed by the finance manager. Only an optimum finance mix can maximize the market price of the company’s shares in the long run. To decrease the risk, a stable equilibrium is required between debt and equity.
Return and risk to the equity shareholders depends on how optimally the debts and financial leverages are used. Only when the risk and return are in synchronization, the market value per share is maximized. The apt timing for raising funds is to be decided by the financial manager time to raise the funds.
Nature of Financial Management:
Finance management is a long term decision making process which involves lot of planning, allocation of funds, discipline and much more. Let us understand the nature of financial management with reference of this discipline.
1. Finance management is one of the important education which has been realized word wide. Now a day’s people are undergoing through various specialization courses of financial management. Many people have chosen financial management as their profession.
2. The nature of financial management is never a separate entity. Even as an operational manager or functional manager one has to take responsibility of financial management.
3. Finance is a foundation of economic activities. The person who Manages finance is called as financial manager. Important role of financial manager is to control finance and implement the plans. For any company financial manager plays a crucial role in it. Many times it happens that lack of skills or wrong decisions can lead to heavy losses to an organization.
4. Nature of financial management is multi-disciplinary. Financial management depends upon various other factors like: accounting, banking, inflation, economy, etc. for the better utilization of finances.
5. Approach of financial management is not limited to business functions but it is a backbone of commerce, economic and industry.
Financial management is defined as “provision of money when required from time to time.” In this tutorial lesson we have learned about nature of financial management and scope of financial management. This knowledge will assist you in empowering your financial management decisions.
- Tutorial Course - Financial Management Basics For Beginners -
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» e-Learning Chapter 2: What is Financial Management? Definition, Examples and its Importance
» e-Learning Chapter 3: Objectives of Financial Management
» Currently Reading: Nature and Scope of Financial Management
» e-Learning Chapter 5: What is Managerial Accounting? Definition, Role, Job and Objectives
» e-Learning Chapter 6: What is Corporate Finance? Definition, Roles, Principles and Importance
» e-Learning Chapter 7: Investment Valuation and Project Valuation Methods and Techniques
» e-Learning Chapter 8: What is Working Capital Management? Definition, Importance and Objectives
» e-Learning Chapter 9: Financial Risk Management – Techniques, Methods and Types
» e-Learning Chapter 10: Financial Management for Startups
» e-Learning Chapter 11: Financial Management for IT Services