What are the Different Types of Banking and Financial Institutions


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There is lot more to banking term than what most of the people recognize. Not all banks are shaped in equal manner or to operate for the same reason with same fundamentals. Since individuals or corporate have diversified needs of finance. “Different types of banking and financial institutions are operated to classify services based on distinctive types”. Name banks subject to large entity they are further divided into types based on universal arrangement of capital principles. Bank is an financial institution or intermediary institution for various financial necessities and dealing either directly or indirectly with financial system of nation’s economy. Due to this important factors banks are highly regulated by nation’s government or central bank of country. Banking industry is divided into different types based on client requirements for products and services.


Types of Banking Institutions and Financial Institutions:

  • Specialized financing.
  • Central Banks.

Retail Banking:

Retail banking is the procurement of administrations by a bank to individual rather than to organizations, corporate or other banks. Administrations offered services like savings, money transfers, loans, cheques, cards, etc. The term retail banking mostly recognize as financial institutions for managing an account administrations for individuals or managing retail clients which distinguish it from other banking types. To further understand retail banking refer to tutorial links.


Wiki Finance pedia - e-learning course on Banking wikipedia Chapter - Different Types of Banking and Financial InstitutionsCommercial Banking:

Commercial banks provide administrations services such as making business advances, offering fundamental investment schemes, encouraging saving deposits, fixed deposits, Issuing bank drafts and bank cheques,  giving overdraft facilities, bond investment schemes, cash management, mortgage loans, debit cards, credit cards, etc.

There are two types of commercial banks, Public Commercial Banks and Private Commercial Banks. Public commercial banks refers to bank in which government holds major stake usually to emphasize on social objectives than on profitability. Whereas Private Commercial Banks are fully owned, managed and controlled by private supporter and they are free to operate without any government interference. For more details refer to the tutorial links.


Private Banking:

The expression “private” refers to administration services more on personal basis rather than mass population (Retail Banking). Private Banks refer as financial institutions for managing accounts, investments and other services offered by banks to high-net worth individuals (HNI) who are categories as high income professionals or large investors. Private banks subject to an essential part of wealth management for high income groups. They provide services like: assets management, tax advisory, financial brokers, offered solitary relationship manger. To understand Private Banks in more elaborated way, refer to the tutorial course links.


Investment Banking:

An investment bank refers as a consultant or assisting institution for individuals, organisations and governments in raising capital by underwriting assets. And/or performing broker in issuing securities. An investment bank likewise assist organisations in simplifying acquisitions and mergers, trading in derivatives, equities, currencies, commodities by providing auxiliary services. Investment bank does not provide deposit services like commercial banks or retail banks.

Investment bank can likewise be divided into private and public based on information capacities and data obstruction. The private ranges deals with private insider data that cannot be freely disclosed, while public range such as stock examination deals with public data. For more details refer to tutorial course links.


Specialized Financing:

Specialized Banks offers various specialized services away from traditional banking. Specialized banks are financial institutions referred as foreign exchange banks, development banks, industry and mine banks, farms and agriculture banks, aboriginal banks (providing financial products and services to aboriginal communities), export-import banks with unique needs.

Some specialized banks are governed and regulated by state or central governments or both for re-structuring, planning and development of the country. Specialized banks and financial institutions are broadly categories into three types of specialized banks, they are:

  • Export Import Banks (EXIM Banks).
  • Small Industries Development Banks.
  • Agricultural and Rural Development Banks.

Central Banks:

A reserve bank, central bank, or monetary authority refers to a financial institution that manages a states or country. In term of currency, interest rates, currency valuation. Central bank holds monopoly in increasing monetary base also by prints the national currency. Central bank functions mostly include managing foreign exchange and gold reserves, implementing monetary policy, acting as a banker’s bank at time of crisis, making official policies regarding interest rates. Central bank holds superior power to protect country man by punishing banks or institutions for performing any reckless or fraudulent behaviour. Central banks are mostly designed and recognised as an independent and politically free entity. Examples: Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is the central bank of India, Bank of England, European Central Bank (ECB), People’s Bank of China, Federal Reserve of the United States of America, etc.

 

  

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